The Beginning of Biological Development

From Colorado's 2010 Amendment 62 Co-Sponsors
Rebutting Colorado's Legislative Council

2016 Update: A team of scientists from Northwestern University have photographic documentation of the "flash of light" that occurs at the moment of fertilization. See that here:



Preliminary Comment on Beginning of Biological Development: The Colorado Legislative Council has persisted in claiming against all scientific and medical research and common usage of English grammar that the phrase "the beginning of biological development," is "a term which is not defined… and is not an accepted medical or scientific term." So prior to presenting our answers to the council's thirteen questions, we're summarizing references that address this matter first, for both sexual (fertilization) and asexual (twinning, cloning, etc.) human reproduction.

THE BEGINNING OF BIOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

1.  SEXUAL HUMAN REPRODUCTION:

The following scientific references are provided by medical ethicist Dr. Prof. Dianne N. Irving of Georgetown University who herself writes herein, "Scientifically, the term 'embryo' as it refers to the sexually reproduced single-cell human embryo should apply from the biological beginning of that human organism, i.e., at the beginning of the process of fertilization or first contact of the sperm with the oocyte (as documented by Carnegie Stage 1)":

Carnegie Stage 1 Definition: Embryonic life commences with fertilization, and hence the beginning of that process may be taken as the point de depart of stage 1.  Despite the small size (ca. 0.1 mm) and weight (ca. 0.004 mg) of the organism at fertilization, the embryo is "schon ein individual-spezifischer Mensch"  (Blechschmidt, 1972). ... Fertilization is the procession of events that begins when a spermatozoon makes contact with an oocyte or its investments and ends with the intermingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes at metaphase of the first mitotic division of the zygote (Brackett et al., 1972).  Fertilization sensu stricto involves the union of developmentally competent gametes realized in an appropriate environment to result in the formation of a viable embryo (Tesarik, 1986) ... .  Fertilization requires probably slightly longer than 24 hours in primates (Brackett et al., 1972).  In the case of human oocytes fertilized in vitro, pronuclei were formed within 11 hours of insemination (Edwards, 1972).  ... Fertilization, which takes place normally in the ampulla of the uterine tube, includes (a) contact of spermatozoa with the zona pellucida of an oocyte, penetration of one or more spermatozoa through the zona pellucida and the ooplasm, swelling of the spermatozoal head and extrusion of the second polar body, (b) the formation of the male and female pronuclei, and (c) the beginning of the first mitotic division, or cleavage, of the zygote.  ... The three phases (a, b, and c) referred to above will be included here under stage 1, the characteristic feature of which is unicellularity. ...  [see at cargnegiscience.edu from the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, Stage 1.] (emphases added)

Human development is a continuous process that begins when an oocyte (ovum) from a female is fertilized by a sperm (or spermatozoon) from a male.  (p. 2);   ibid.: ... but the embryo begins to develop as soon as the oocyte is fertilized.  (p. 2);   ibid.:  [Single-cell human embryo]:  this cell results from the union of an oocyte and a sperm ...  is the beginning of a new human being (i.e., an embryo).  (p. 2);  ibid.:  Human development begins at fertilization, the process during which a male gamete or sperm ... unites with a female gamete or oocyte ... to form a single cell [embryo] .  This highly specialized, totipotent cell marks the beginning of each of us as a unique individual. (p. 18)  ...  The usual site of fertilization is the ampulla of the uterine tube [fallopian tube], its longest and widest part.  If the oocyte is not fertilized here, it slowly passes along the tube to the uterus, where it degenerates and is reabsorbed.  Although fertilization may occur in other parts of the tube, it does not occur in the uterus.  ... The embryo's chromosomes sex is determined at fertilization by the kind of sperm (X or Y) that fertilizes the ovum; hence it is the father rather than the mother whose gamete determines the sex of the embryo. [Keith Moore and T.V.N. Persaud, The Developing Human:  Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed. only) (Philadelphia:  W.B. Saunders Company, 1998), p. 37] (emphases added)

Human pregnancy begins with the fusion of an egg and a sperm. (p. 3);  ...  finally, the fertilized egg, now properly called an embryo, must make its way into the uterus  (p. 3);  ...   The sex of the future embryo is determined by the chromosomal complement of the spermatozoon ...  Through the mingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes, the [embryo] is a genetically unique product of chromosomal reassortment ... [Bruce M. Carlson, Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (St. Louis, MO:  Mosby, 1994), p. 31;  ibid, Carlson 1999, pp., 2, 23, 27, 32] (emphasis added)

In this text, we begin our description of the developing human with the formation and differentiation of the male and female sex cells or gametes, which will unite at fertilization to initiate the embryonic development of a new individual. ...  Fertilization takes place in the oviduct [not the uterus]... resulting in the formation of an [embryo] containing a single diploid nucleus.  Embryonic development is considered to begin at this point.  (p. 1);  ... [William J. Larsen, Human Embryology (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1997), p. 17] (emphases added)

Fertilization is an important landmark because, under ordinary circumstances, a new, genetically distinct human organism is thereby formed.  (p. 5);   ibid.:  Fertilization is the procession of events that begins when a spermatozoon makes contact with a secondary oocyte or its investments ...  (p. 19);   ibid.: "The ill-defined and inaccurate term pre-embryo, which includes the embryonic disc, is said either to end with the appearance of the primitive streak or ... to include neurulation.  The term is not used in this book. [Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York:  Wiley-Liss, 1994), p. 55] (emphases added)

Pro-life Profile: National Right To Life

National Right To Life has had a major pro-abortion influence

National RTL Committee has turned against the fight to protect unborn children by its defense of politicians who ignore abortion when nominating judges, by its staunch opposition to all efforts to enforce the unborn child's right to life, and by repeatedly opposing actual pro-life candidates, even in primaries, while it supports child killing regulations and many flat-out pro-abortion politicians. For a full accounting, please see prolifeprofiles.com/nrtl.

Founder of Abolish Human Abortion Confronts Nat'l RTL VP: In the Oklahoma capitol building National Right To Life's vice president Tony Lauinger meets AHA's T. Russell Hunter and other abolitionists. The extraordinary battle in Oklahoma City over Senate Bill 1118, supported by 22 state senators and opposed by National Right To Life, which would have ended all state-sanctioned child killing by acknowledging that abortion is murder.

 

 

 

Worst Abortion Video Yet

A TEACHABLE MOMENT
Outrage Over Body Parts Videos Squandered by Defunding Efforts
Defund Planned Parenthood Bills Typically Fund Abortion
Politicians Against PP Funding Give Record Funds to Abortion 

Lesson from Presidential History: Former president George W. Bush claimed to be against tax funding of abortion yet the Bush administration increased funding to Planned Parenthood by nearly a billion tax dollars over and above what Bill Clinton had been able to give them, and this was true even though for four years Bush and the Republicans had a historic monopoly on power with the trifecta of control over the executive branch, and the legislative branch, and the U.S. Supreme Court. And G. W. Bush gave Planned Parenthood all that money even though it is fungible, and even though in a typical year 98% of Planned Parenthood's pregnancy "services" consist of abortion. Further, just like Roe v. Wade was a Republican ruling, written by Republican Justice Harry Blackmun and passed by a Republican majority, so too, Republican George H.W. Bush initiated Title X funding, amounting to many millions of dollars per year, to Planned Parenthood.  

Lesson from Baby Body Parts Videos: With the public outrage over Planned Parenthood selling baby body parts, what should pro-lifers do now? Do we provide political cover for "pro-life" politicians and talk show hosts like FNC's Megan Kelly who can grandstand against harvesting body parts from "potential life" by urging them to call for the defunding of Planned Parenthood? Of course not. Instead, CRTL offers this response:

"With the viral body parts videos, America has run out of excuses. The abortion clinic says that they are merely removing tissue. But 'tissue' does not have a heart, lungs, arms and legs. Planned Parenthood is killing babies. Everyone knows that. And they're even selling the body parts. A baby is a person made in God's image so we must all fight to protect each child by love and by law."

RegulationsR.us Begins ISIS Ad Campaign

DENVER, Summer 2015 /Christian Newswire/ -- A dozen organizations joined RegulationsR.us to launch their social media campaign to urge the Islamic terrorist group ISIS to employ more humane forms of killing. A series of messages, each inspired by a specific piece of pro-life legislation, urges ISIS, for example, to use anesthetics prior to a beheading.

meme URLs: AmericanRTL.org/isis1.jpg isis2.jpg isis3.jpg isis4.jpg isis5.jpg isis6.jpg isis7.jpg isis8.jpg isis9.jpg

 
For more info see regulationsr.us, and the top five articles linked to in the blue column on the right, or you can email, write or call us:

American Right To Life
PO Box 5211
Denver, CO 80217
office@AmericanRTL.org
1-888-888-ARTL